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Western South America, bordering the Pacific Ocean at the Equator, between Colombia and Peru

Geographic coordinates:

2 00 S, 77 30 W

Map references:

South America


total: 283,560 sq km
land: 276,840 sq km
water: 6,720 sq km
note: includes Galapagos Islands

Area - comparative:

slightly smaller than Nevada

Land boundaries:

total: 2,010 km
border countries: Colombia 590 km, Peru 1,420 km


2,237 km

Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 200 nm
continental shelf: 100 nm from 2,500 meter isobath


tropical along coast, becoming cooler inland at higher elevations; tropical in Amazonian jungle lowlands


coastal plain (costa), inter-Andean central highlands (sierra), and flat to rolling eastern jungle (oriente)

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Chimborazo 6,267 m

Natural resources:

petroleum, fish, timber, hydropower

Land use:

arable land: 5.85%
permanent crops: 4.93%
other: 89.22% (2001)

Irrigated land:

8,650 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:

frequent earthquakes, landslides, volcanic activity; floods; periodic droughts

Environment - current issues:

deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; water pollution; pollution from oil production wastes in ecologically sensitive areas of the Amazon Basin and Galapagos Islands

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:

Cotopaxi in Andes is highest active volcano in world



13,363,593 (July 2005 est.)

Age structure:

0-14 years: 33.5% (male 2,282,252/female 2,195,942)
15-64 years: 61.5% (male 4,094,146/female 4,130,096)
65 years and over: 4.9% (male 310,336/female 350,821) (2005 est.)

Median age:

total: 23.27 years
male: 22.82 years
female: 23.74 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:

1.24% (2005 est.)

Birth rate:

22.67 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Death rate:

4.24 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Net migration rate:

-6.07 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

total: 23.66 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 28.36 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 18.72 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 76.21 years
male: 73.35 years
female: 79.22 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:

2.72 children born/woman (2005 est.)


noun: Ecuadorian(s)
adjective: Ecuadorian

Ethnic groups:

mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 65%, Amerindian 25%, Spanish and others 7%, black 3%


Roman Catholic 95%, other 5%


Spanish (official), Amerindian languages (especially Quechua)


definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 92.5%
male: 94%
female: 91% (2003 est.)


Country name:

conventional long form: Republic of Ecuador
conventional short form: Ecuador
local long form: Republica del Ecuador
local short form: Ecuador

Government type:




Administrative divisions:

22 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Azuay, Bolivar, Canar, Carchi, Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, El Oro, Esmeraldas, Galapagos, Guayas, Imbabura, Loja, Los Rios, Manabi, Morona-Santiago, Napo, Orellana, Pastaza, Pichincha, Sucumbios, Tungurahua, Zamora-Chinchipe


24 May 1822 (from Spain)

National holiday:

Independence Day (independence of Quito), 10 August (1809)


10 August 1998

Legal system:

based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


18 years of age; universal, compulsory for literate persons ages 18-65, optional for other eligible voters

Source: CIA World Factbook