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Argentina

Background:

Following independence from Spain in 1816, Argentina experienced periods of internal political conflict between conservatives and liberals and between civilian and military factions. After World War II, a long period of Peronist authoritarian rule and interference in subsequent governments was followed by a military junta that took power in 1976. Democracy returned in 1983, and numerous elections since then have underscored Argentina's progress in democratic consolidation.

Geography

Location:

Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Chile and Uruguay

Geographic coordinates:

34 00 S, 64 00 W

Map references:

 

Area:

total: 2,766,890 sq km
land: 2,736,690 sq km
water: 30,200 sq km

Area - comparative:

slightly less than three-tenths the size of the US

Land boundaries:


total: 9,665 km
border countries: Bolivia 832 km, Brazil 1,224 km, Chile 5,150 km, Paraguay 1,880 km, Uruguay 579 km

Coastline:


4,989 km

Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin

Climate:

mostly temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in southwest

Terrain:


rich plains of the Pampas in northern half, flat to rolling plateau of Patagonia in south, rugged Andes along western border

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Laguna del Carbon -105 m (located between Puerto San Julian and Comandante Luis Piedra Buena in the province of Santa Cruz)
highest point: Cerro Aconcagua 6,960 m (located in the northwestern corner of the province of Mendoza)

Natural resources:

fertile plains of the pampas, lead, zinc, tin, copper, iron ore, manganese, petroleum, uranium

Land use:

arable land: 12.31%
permanent crops: 0.48%
other: 87.21% (2001)

Irrigated land:

15,610 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards:

San Miguel de Tucuman and Mendoza areas in the Andes subject to earthquakes; pamperos are violent windstorms that can strike the pampas and northeast; heavy flooding

Environment - current issues:

environmental problems (urban and rural) typical of an industrializing economy such as deforestation, soil degradation, desertification, air pollution, and water pollution
note: Argentina is a world leader in setting voluntary greenhouse gas targets

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note:

second-largest country in South America (after Brazil); strategic location relative to sea lanes between the South Atlantic and the South Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage); Cerro Aconcagua is South America's tallest mountain, while Laguna del Carbon is the lowest point in the Western Hemisphere

People

Population:

39,537,943 (July 2005 est.)

Age structure:

0-14 years: 25.6% (male 5,170,721/female 4,938,171)
15-64 years: 63.9% (male 12,626,711/female 12,627,026)
65 years and over: 10.6% (male 1,712,117/female 2,463,197) (2005 est.)

Median age:

total: 29.42 years
male: 28.52 years
female: 30.4 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:

0.98% (2005 est.)

Birth rate:

16.9 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Death rate:

7.56 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Net migration rate:

0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

total: 15.18 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 17.07 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 13.19 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 75.91 years
male: 72.17 years
female: 79.85 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:

2.19 children born/woman (2005 est.)

Nationality:

noun: Argentine(s)
adjective: Argentine

Ethnic groups:

white (mostly Spanish and Italian) 97%, mestizo (mixed white and Amerindian ancestry), Amerindian, or other non-white groups 3%

Religions:

nominally Roman Catholic 92% (less than 20% practicing), Protestant 2%, Jewish 2%, other 4%

Languages:

Spanish (official), English, Italian, German, French

Literacy:

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97.1%
male: 97.1%
female: 97.1% (2003 est.)

Government

Country name:

conventional long form: Argentine Republic
conventional short form: Argentina
local long form: Republica Argentina
local short form: Argentina

Government type:

republic

Capital:

Buenos Aires

Administrative divisions:

23 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia), and 1 autonomous city* (distrito federal); Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires Capital Federal*, Catamarca, Chaco, Chubut, Cordoba, Corrientes, Entre Rios, Formosa, Jujuy, La Pampa, La Rioja, Mendoza, Misiones, Neuquen, Rio Negro, Salta, San Juan, San Luis, Santa Cruz, Santa Fe, Santiago del Estero, Tierra del Fuego - Antartida e Islas del Atlantico Sur, Tucuman
note: the US does not recognize any claims to Antarctica

Independence:

9 July 1816 (from Spain)

National holiday:

Revolution Day, 25 May (1810)

Constitution:

August 1994

Legal system:

mixture of US and West European legal systems; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:

18 years of age; universal and compulsory



  Source: CIA World Factbook